Introduction to psychology

“Outline and evidence three different sources of bias in academic psychology and suggest what can be done to overcome them.”
Sample Solution

meaning of an image. An image can denote certain apparent truths. Denotative meaning means literal, descriptive meaning. However the same image can connote culturally specific meaning. Connotative meaning depends on cultural and historical context of the image which the viewers themselves have experienced. In other words it’s the viewer’s own interpretation of image based on their own experiences and beliefs in the cultural environment the viewer is living. Hence an image which is just a representation of reality actually invokes facts which are deeper than visible. “In Barthes model , in addition to the two levels of meaning of denotation and connotation , that is the sign , which is composed of the signifier and signified , which is the concept evoked by that word/image . in the Benetton ad, one interpretation could be that the burning car is the signifier and terrorism is the signified .The image (or word) and its meaning together (the signifier and signified together form the sign. Image/ sound word – Signifier Meaning – Signified = Sign”- Marita Sturken and Lisa Cartwright(2001), Practices of looking: An Introduction to Visual culture(Oxford: Oxford University Press), P.19 So every image has got one signifier and its meaning which we interpret is a signified which is equal to sign that means every image make us think what is the hidden meaning behind it, and most of the time photographer try to give that sign in that image or text which we see in newspapers, magazines or in television commercials. In still photography photographer try to give these effects by showing certain degree of subjectivity and objectivity it directly hits the conscious mind and also try to hit the sub-conscious mind of the interpreter. In most of the advertisement emphasis is given on masculinity and genders like Marlboro ads they always feature a cowboy going on a horse they both are signifier of power and masculinity, where a cowboy is shown on top of hill taking drags of cigarette on top of hill, Most of the under wear ads man is shown as powerful by showing features of his body and masculinity it creates a kind of attraction, but in real world who wears underwear is not always as powerful as shown in these ads. People always try to co-relate themselves with these models. In female accessories advertisements model is always beautiful looking full of life wearing a good dress and using some products where they show she has become more beautiful after weari>

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